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جزوات مبانی سازمان و مدیریت استاد زنگانه - تئوری نئو کلاسیک

تئوری نئو کلاسیک

پنجشنبه 30 آبان 1392  08:23 ب.ظ

 

تئوری نئوکلاسیک:

نئوکلاسیک ها در راستای رفع نقص نظریات کلاسیک ها میباشند در نظریه های این دوره توجه به عامل انسانی در مدیریت شکل گرفته است.

1/1/مطالعات هاثورن:

 مطالعات هاثورن توسط آلتون مایو در دانشگاه هاروارد صورت گرفته است این مطالعات توجه به عوامل اجتماعی روحیه گروهی نقش گروههای غیر رسمی در کارایی افراد بیان مینمایند. شروع کار با بررسی سه متغیر : استراحت کارگران در ساعات مان کار ، آزادی کارگران در محیط کار و نداشتن سرپرست مستقیم، پدیده های ناشی از کاهش ساعات کار صورت گرفت.

نحوه آزمایش بدین شکل بوده که :

از دو کارگر زن خواسته شد 1- تاهر کدام 4همکار برای خود برگزینند.

2-ادامه فعالیتها مانند قبل (افزایش تولید گردد)

3- شش کارگر که وظیفه آنها منتاژ تلفن بود که به صورت جداگانه کار میکردند در یک اتاق جمع کردند و در نحوه کارشان تغییرات به وجود آورده و پس از مدتی افزایش حقوق دادند و ساعات کار آنان را کاهش داده که این امر پس از مدتی سطح تولید را افزایش داد.

4- در این مرحله شش کارگر را میان بقیه ی کارگران برگرداندند و کار معمولی با چهل ساعت کار در هفته بدون استراحت که این امر باعث افزایش تولید گردید.

نتایج مطالعات هاثورن:

1/ نیاز کارکنان به عرضه داشتن شخصیت خویش

2/ نیاز آنان به تامین آسایش و رفاه روحی و روانی

3/ حس همبستگی و وابستگی افراد به یکدیگر

4/ نیاز آنان به اینکه خود را جزء سازمان بدانند و احساس نمایند که سازمان هم متقابلاً آنها را از آن خود میداند.

5/ لزوم تطبیق هدفهای گروههای غیر رسمی با هدفهای رسمی سازمان

 

رفتار اداری:

(هربرت سایفون )در کتاب رفتار اداری خود اظهار میدارد که رفتار اداری افراد به طور کامل منطقی نیست و بر اساس محدودیتها تصمیم گیری عقلایی اقتصادی تحقق میابد و تصمیم گیرنده به یک تصمیم رضایت بخش اداری اکتفا میکند.

انسان گرایی و منابع انسانی

 این اندیشه عامل نیروی انسانی را در کنار عوامل تجارت و تجهیزات مطرح مینماید.

مازلو با نظریه سلسله مراتب اختیارات و مک گریگو با نظریه

  نظریه پردازان مشهور تئوری میباشد. X،y 

                         مک گریگور:X,yتئوری                        

X مفروضات تئوری

1/ انسان معمولی از کار کردن بیزار است و تا حد امکان از کار کردن گریزان است.

2/ با تهدید و تطمیع او را به کار وا داشتن

3/ اغلب افراد ترجیح میدهند رهبری شوند تا اینکه متکی به خود باشند و یا خود رهبری را بدست گیرند.

4/ افراد مسئولیت پذیر نیستند بنابراین باید بر آنان نظارت مستقیم و دقیق صورت پذیرد.

5/ انگیزش فقط در سطوح احتیاجات فیزیولوژیک و امنیت صورت میگیرد.

Yمفروضات تئوری

1/ انسان ذاتا کار کردن را دوست دارد و کار برای او یک تفریح است.

2/ انسان با برانگیختن و داشتن انگیزه به کار ترغیب دارد.

3/ انسان تحت شرایط مناسب در جستجوی شرایط مسئولیت است.

4/انسان میتواند رفتار خود را بدون دخالت و نظارت مستقیم دیگران در جهت رسیدن به اهداف گروهی تنظیم کند.

5/ انگیزش در سطوح نیازهای مربوط به وابستگی اجتماعی احترام و خود شکوفایی و نیازهای فیزیولوژیک و امنیت صورت میگیرد.

نتیجه تئوری قبل :

مردم در جوامع دموکراتیک با بالا رفتن سطح دانش و زندگی  دیگر نمیتوانند مصداق مفروضات ایکس باشند بنابراین برای برانگیختن آنها از شیوه هایی باید استفاده نمود که مبتنی بر مفروضات تئوری ایگرگ باشد.

نظریه پردازان علوم رفتاری:

1/ زیگموند فروید:

 بسیاری از محرکات رفتاری برای انسان قابل مشاهده نمیباشد.فروید ابعاد سه گانه شخصیت تحت عنوان نهاد من، منِ برتر معرفی کرد.فروید معتقد است که تضاد و ستیز بین این بعد موجب عدم تعادل و ایجاد اضطراب در شخص میشود و فرد برای کاهش اضطراب به مکانیزم های دفاعی متوسل میشود.

2/ اسکیز :

شناخت انسان تنها از طریق مشاهده رفتار میسر میباشد و بیان میکند که رفتار همیشه تحت تاثیر محرکهایی به وجود می آید که این محرکها ناشی از محیط میباشد.

 

 

3/ دیوید مک کلند :

وی نظریه سه گانه را برای درک انگیزه های افراد در محیط سازمانی مطرح میکند نیازهای سه گانه عبارتند از نیاز به کسب قدرت نیاز به کسب موفقیت و نیاز به ایجاد ارتباط با دیگران .

 او معتقد است که مقدار انگیزش و تلاش تا زمانی که احتمال موفقیت 50% باشد افزایش میابد و پس از آن سیر نزولی دارد.

4/ هرزبرگ:

 هرزبرگ در تحقیقات خود به این نتیجه رسید که افراد از شغل خود خواهان کسب موفقیت ، مسئولیت و رشد هستند، به نظر او اگر مدیری بخواهد افراد را برانگیزد باید شغلها را طرح ریزی مجدد نمود تا کارکنان بتوانند انواع گوناگون کارها را انجام دهند

نوشته شده توسط: آیدا محمد سلطانی | آخرین ویرایش:پنجشنبه 30 آبان 1392 | نظرات() 

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